The Earth’s geological potential involves not only its mineral and energy resources and land-use for construction, but also wildlife, educational and recreational values. Environmental information and geotourism contribute to people’s responsibility for the environment and their ability to integrate environmental considerations into all decision-making in an informed manner.
Environmental knowledge extends to whatever puts quality and content into people’s lives. Ultimately environmental awareness aims at changing people’s environmental attitudes and more importantly, their behaviour.
Geological as well as biological features may attract nature lovers and tourists. Natural attractions can also generate considerable service business. Tourism should be organized on a sustainable basis to ensure that these attractions give lasting pleasure to future generations.
Tanzania has some of the geological wonders of the world as geotouristic attractions. Among the most prominent attractions include
- Ngorongoro Crater: one of the ten wonders of the world and largest volcanic crater in the world.
- Kilimanjaro mountain: The roof of Africa standing at 5,895 m.a.s.l and is the highest volcanic peak in the world.
- Oldonyo Lengai: The only natro-carbornatite volcano on the planet earth.
- Olduvai Gorge: Spectacular and very fertile volcanic ash blankets laid over Precambrian age (about 2 billion years old) and Neo proterozoic eclogites at Chisi. Metamorphic rocks. It is the place where remains of the earliest man were found.
- East African Rift Valley: Host of largest and deepest lakes of Africa, diverse types of evaporates, salt deposits, hot springs and magnificent cinder cones and craters.
- Mautia Hill: The only locality in the world where the mineral yoderite occurs in nature in a complex skarn – type metamorphic mineral assemblage
- Eclogite occurrences: The most ancient ultra high pressure “eclogites” at Yalumba, Ikola, and Kungwe Bay of Paleoproterozoic
To develop geotourism GST provides:
Evaluation of regional nature values.
Mapping and popularization of nature targets.
Innovative design of geo-parks, trails and visitor centres of geological attractions.
Production of educational and tuition materials (guide books, site information, multimedia presentations, in-depth studies).
Land use and planning
Developing infrastructure such as large buildings, roads, railways, air ports, power stations, telecommunication, construction of water dams and gas distribution networks, depend on geological information of the ground.
GST has skills and equipment to carry out geological and geophysical studies on the ground and to transform the recorded data into useful information and provide geo-technical recommendations.
Teaching kits containing rocks and minerals are supplied to schools and other training institutions as teaching materials (see price list) .
GST offers GIS based cartographic services on processing and production of digital and analogue maps used in the mineral sector and other sectors of the economy.
Other cartographic services offered include:
- Processing and producing customer-tailored maps.
- Provision of map printing services to external customers.
- Provision of digitization.
- Provision of map enlargement and reduction.
- Provision of dyeline map production.
The library of the Geological Survey of Tanzania is the main library for geoscience information in Tanzania. The library provides services to staff, geoscientific organisations and universities as well as members of the public.
The GST library, holds more than fourteen thousand (14,000) items. The holdings include more than seven hundred (700) geologic maps and more than 2,800 geophysical maps. It also houses monographs and conference volumes, theses and dissertations, CD-ROMs. In addition to purchasing, materials are acquired through exchange agreements with both national and international organisations. The library material is also available to users through interlibrary loans. The Library is also currently the sale centre of geoscientific products from GST.
The Geological Archives render services to GST staff and external customers. External customers are normally charged minimal charges for search service.
The Archives database contains unpublished, classified, and open file reports, field notebooks, maps, old mine plans, slides and CD-ROMs. The time coverage of the reports is from 1885 to present.
Copies of the material can be ordered (price list) . Also increasing amount of reports is available in full-text and the material can be studied in the Archives.
GST is the national custodian for drill cores. GST houses thousands of meters of diamond drill cores obtained from drilling operations carried out by mineral exploration and mining companies and GST. Drill Core Register contains basic metadata about cores. (price list)
Rock Library services
The Rock Library contains varieties of rock and mineral samples from the mapped areas of the country. These samples are well documented and are available to the investors and researchers.
Geological Museum at GST as centre of learning
The museum has a variety of rocks, minerals and fossils collected from within the country and abroad.
The Geological Museum has an exchange program with other Geological Museums in the world, whereby exchanges are made for geological samples and other materials including, meteorites and fossils for similar samples from other parts of the world.
Visitors from Tanzania and outside the country visit the Museum to see and learn from the rich geological collections of Tanzania and some of the products of GST (price list)
The GST laboratory is among the leading establishment in the country undertaking chemical, mineralogical, petrological analyses of mineral, soil, rock and water samples. It also provides services on environmental studies and mineral beneficiation tests.
GST Laboratory has developed a Quality Assurance System (QAS), which complies with the ISO/IEC 17025-General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories.
Services offered include: sample preparation, fire assay and wet chemistry analysis. The chemical laboratory performs a wide range of determinations, which include:
- Major elements (SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, P2O5, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, MnO and Na2O.
- Base metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu).
- Trace elements (Ag, As, CO, Cr, Cu, MO, Ni, Pb, Zn, Au, Hg).
- Precious metals (Au, Ag).
- Water analysis (both clean and waste) for various components such TDS, sulphates, conductivity, salinity, pH, turbidity, colour and cations are analysed in water colour.
- Pollutant elements (metals) such as: mercury, lead, zinc, cadmium, arsenic and selenium.
Petrophysical properties of rocks are essential for interpreting geophysical measurements and in assessing geochemical, mineralogy and geophysical constituents of rocks. The Geological Survey of Tanzania (GST) undertakes petrophysical measurements for determining petrophysical properties of rock and ore samples.
The following petrophysical measurements are undertaken:
- Magnetic susceptibility of rocks
- Remanent magnetization
- Q – ratio calculation.
- Rock density.
- Rock conductivity.
The Geological Survey of Tanzania (GST) has a petrophysical laboratory for measuring petrophysical properties of rock and ore samples. Petrophysical parameters can be used for quantification of geophysical interpretations and have also direct geological applications.
Petrophysical laboratory measurements include density, porosity, magnetic susceptibility and remanent magnetization and galvanic or inductive resistivity.
The GST laboratory equipment has been developed for rapid measurement of many samples with high accuracy. Measured data are currently stored in a database, and data analyses and summaries are available for scientific and commercial purposes.
Geophysical data and information is widely used in the mineral exploration, infrastructure building and the environmental assessment.
GST offers a wide range of geophysical field surveys for exploration, geological mapping, environmental studies, urban and physical planning, and basic research. Instrumentation includes magnetometers, gravimeters, seismographs, spectral IP, and EM wide-band deep sounding equipment. Geophysical field teams work closely with exploration companies in the field, conducting geophysical surveys in order to verify performance and gain credibility.
Geophysical services offered include price list
- Magnetic survey
- Electromagnetic (EM) survey
- Radiometric survey
- Induced polarisation (IP)
- Gravity survey
- Borehole logging
Regional geological mapping
Stream sediment geochemistry
Detailed geological mapping
Stream sediments sampling
Rock chip sampling
Electromagnetic survey (EM)
Induced polarisation (IP)
Extension services are offered to institutions, individuals and small scale miners.
The Mineralogy and petrology laboratory section is equipped with modern facilities for sample preparation, analyzing different minerals, rocks and identification of gemstones. The laboratory offers services on preparation of thin and polished sections, micropetrographic studies and gemological studies.
The laboratory offers services for rock cutting and polishing as per customer demand. The laboratory cuts and polishes specimens for dimension and decoration stones.
The minerals processing laboratory incorporates facilities for technology testing in mineral separation using magnetic, electrostatic, gravitational, froth flotation and gold cyanidation techniques. Upgrading tests on industrial minerals are also conducted.
- To conduct engineering geological studies and provide advice on land use planning, construction and mining industry.
In carrying out the above function, the laboratory is undertaking the following activities:
- Geotechnical Investigations for construction purposes.
- Rock mechanics analysis for construction and mining purposes.
- Slope stability analysis for geo-hazards studies.
- Laboratory material testing for soil and rock mechanics.
6.Determination of engineering properties of aggregates(Aggregate tests).
- XRF- EPSILONS
- XRF- MINIPAL 4
- AAS FITTED WITH GRAPHITE FURNANCE
- AAS- 50- ATOMIC ABSORBTION SPECTROMETER
- AAS- 55 B- ATOMIC ABSORBTION SPECTROMETER
- CS- ANALYSER
- SPECTRAPHOTOMETER- UV/VIS
- CENTRIFUGE- 5702
- CENTRIFUGE- 46933
- HEATING PANNEL
- HOT PLATE
- FURNANCE -3PCS
- PH METER- P90
- PH METER-
- HOT PLATE- CLIFTON
- MAGNETIC STRIAR - LABCON
- BALANCE -ADAM EQUIPMENT
- BALANCE -METTLER TOLEDO
- BALANCE - EGB -HT
- BALANCE -N61
- CUPPEL MAKER
- SAMPLE MIXIES - JURGENS
- SWINGING MILL WITH AGATE CONTENER (HERZOG)
- SAMPLE DRIER - INFRA RED
- SIEVE SHAKER
- JAWCRUSHER - BB2
- SWINGING MILL WITH AGATE CONTENER
- SAMPLE SPILINTER - RET SCH
- PRESSER - PITIT - DICKIE & STOCKL
- WATER BATH - DIGITAL ULTRASONIC BATH
- FURNANCE - MUFFLE
SAMPLE MIXER- J S 14 -M
PETROLOGY AND MINERALOGY EQUIPMENTS
- OPTIKA POLARIZING MICROSCOPE -2
- ZEIS AXIOLAB POLARIZING MICROSCOPE
- MEIJI TECHNO POLARIZING MICROSCOPE
- WILD M3C BINSCULAR MICROSCOPE
- SYNTEST IMMERSIONSCOPE
- SARTOPIUS HYDIOSCOPIC BALANCE
- POLANISCOPE (M4)
- REFRACTOMETER (GEMLED)
- JAMES SWIFT (GRAIN COUNTER)
- NORTON CLIPPER ROCK CUTTING MACHINE
- STRUE DISCOPLAN - TS GRINDING & CUTTING
- JEAN WIRTZ POLISHING MACHINE
- LOGITECH THIN SECTION CUT OH SAW
MINERAL PROCESSING LABORATORY EQUIPMENTS
- ROD/BALL MILL
- ORE FEEDER - (2)
- SHAKING TABLE
- HUMPHREY CONCENTRATE
- MUD PUMP
- H.M.S (HEAVY MEDIA SEPARATOR)
- TROMMELS CONCENTRATE
- BOWL GRINDER
- HYDRO CYCLONE
- MAGNETIC SEPARATOR (DRY) CONTINOUS
- OVEN/DIYER (2)
- ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR
- BALL MILL (BATCH)
- FLOTH FLOATATION CELL(3)
- CENTRIFUGAL CONCENTRATE
- PRESSURE FILTER
- PULP DENSITY BALANCE
- AVERY BEAM BALANCE
- POUND (LB) BALANCE
- SIEVE SHAKER - (3)
- JAW CRUSHER (2)
- ROLL CRUSHER
- DOUBLE DEEK VIBRATE SCREEN
- GRINDING MACHINE
- DRIL MACHINE
- UNDER GROUND FAN (2)
The GST has a broad knowledgeable pool of experts on earth sciences. GST is well known as a source of excellent geoscientific databases of the country, for its reliability, confidentiality, strong business morals and solid project management. The GST has a wide experience of operations in Tanzania and offers services to customers on a commercial basis.
GST expert services include broad geoscientific and technical know-how sought by individual clients, exploration and mining companies, government and institutions. The expert services focus on servicing the mineral sector and other sectors of the economy such as construction industry, land use planning, water resources and environmental studies.
GST technical services comprises of chemical analyses, mineral processing, micro-petrography, geological, geophysical and geochemical services. In all business operations GST apply modern management tools as well as the Internal Quality System.
As a consultancy institution, the main goal is to help GST’s partners resolve their problems related to mineral exploration, mining and the sustainable use of geological raw materials, environment and land-use management